The 21st Century Power Partnership publications provide information about and analysis of market design and regulatory issues for clean energy and 21st century power systems. Published work appears in scientific journals and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory publications database.
China and the 21st Century Power Partnership
This fact sheet provides an overview of the mission and objectives, and recent activities for 21CPP work in China.
Exploring New Models for Utility Distributed Energy Resource Planning and Integration: SMUD and Con Edison
This brief is part of a broader study under the 21st Century Power Partnership (21CPP) to help program partners coordinate on DER planning and other shared energy priorities to assist in meeting the demands of an evolving generation mix and grid.
China Renewable Energy Outlook 2017
This report focuses on China's options for a low-carbon energy transition through 2050, and the short-term actions needed to remove obstacles for renewable energy development.
An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States
Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This report examines the price impact of retail electricity choice, the relationship between wholesale and retail electricity markets, and lessons learned from U.S. retail market experience.
Grid-Level Application of Electrical Energy Storage: Example Use Cases in the United States and China
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine Vol. 15 (5) September-October 2017 pp. 51-58.
Electrical energy storage (EES) systems are expected to play an increasing role in helping the United States and China—the world's largest economies with the two largest power systems—meet the challenges of integrating more variable renewable resources and enhancing the reliability of power systems by improving the operating capabilities of the electric grid.
The experiences of grid-level EES systems applications in both countries present valuable technical and institutional lessons for developing EES around the world. This article focuses primarily on battery energy storage systems (BESSs) development in the United States and China.
Clean Energy Generation and Dispatch in Reformed Wholesale Electricity Markets: Experience in the United States
This paper discusses pricing mechanisms in the U.S. electricity market, analyzes the experience and practice of encouraging renewable energy development policy and clean energy dispatch, and puts forward a reference for clean energy dispatching in China.
Evolving Distributed Generation Support Mechanisms: Case Studies from United States, Germany, United Kingdom, and Australia
Past distributed generation policies and market developments in the United States provide lessons learned. Additional case studies illustrate how several countries are pivoting away from historical forms of support for distributed PV toward more market-based schemes.
Transmission Challenges and Best Practices for Cost-Effective Renewable Energy Delivery across State and Provincial Boundaries
Over the past ten years, China has seen tremendous growth in renewable energy development, accompanied by high levels of curtailment. This report details U.S. experiences in transmission scheduling, pricing, access, and allocation to illustrate implications for consideration in China.
Comparative Analysis and Considerations for PV Interconnection Standards in the United States and China
The main objectives of the report are to evaluate photovoltaic (PV) interconnection standards in China and the U.S., and to consider alternatives for future revisions to these standards.
Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States
This report compares the standards for grid-connected wind plants in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment.
Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration
This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during expert engagements in China to share technical knowledge and experience in power system flexibility.
Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization: A Summary of High-Renewable Modelling Experiences
This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during expert engagements in China to share technical knowledge and experience in comprehensive energy scenario design and modeling.
'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies: Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China
This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during expert engagements in China to share technical knowledge and experience in renewable energy (RE)-friendly grid development.
Historical and Current U.S. Strategies for Boosting Distributed Generation
This report describes a variety of top-down and bottom-up practices that, in concert with the macro-environment of cost-reduction globally and early adoption in Europe, helped boost the distributed generation photovoltaic (DGPV) market in the United States.
Analysis of Distributed-Generation Photovoltaic Deployment, Installation Time and Cost, Market Barriers, and Policies in China
Energy Policy Vol. 81 June 2015 pp. 43-55.
This article reviews the distributed-generation photovoltaic (DG PV) policy changes since 2013 and examines their effect on China's domestic DG PV market.